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Carnegie Institution of Washington


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Carnegie Institution of Washington
DTM-Geophysical Laboratory Library
5241 Broad Branch Road, N.W.
Washington, DC 20015

Shaun J. Hardy, Librarian
tel: (202) 478-7960
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Open Access publishing

Updated June 23, 2014

Open Access Journals: “Journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access ... [permitting] any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles." (DOAJ)

What is Open Access? from the SHERPA Partnership

Open Access: An Introduction” by Keith G. Jeffery

Open Access Overview” by Peter Suber

Types of Open Access

“Gold OA” – Journals with immediate, free access to all of its articles on publisher’s website (e.g., PLoS ONE, Biogeosciences).

“Delayed OA” – Journals with free access to articles after a certain embargo period (typically 6-12 months); newer articles require subscription (e.g., PNAS, Astrophysical Journal).

“Hybrid OA” – Journals with free access to only certain articles, based on author paying an optional open access processing fee, variously known as Author Choice, Open Choice, Author Select, etc. (e.g., Physical Review, JGR).

“Green OA” (Self-Archiving) – Journals that permit authors to post versions of their articles for free access on personal/institutional websites, in institutional repositories (e.g., DSpace@MIT), or in disciplinary repositories (e.g., arXiv, PubMed Central) at the time of publication. Typically used for postprints (final draft post-refereeing), but sometimes for preprints (manuscript pre-refereeing) or actual publisher PDFs. Policies may be tied to OA mandates from funding agencies like NIH, HHMI, Wellcome Trust.

For Authors and Editors

"Should I Publish in, or Be an Editor for, an Open Access (OA) Journal?  A Brief Guide" by Chris Erdmann and William Jacobs

"Open Access in the Geosciences" by Linda Zellmer, Shaun Hardy, and Amanda Bielskas

"Open Access Publishing in the Geosciences: Case Study of the Deep Carbon Observatory" by Shaun Hardy, Geoscience Information Society Proceedings, vol. 43 (2012).


7000+ OA journals are currently published and several hundred new ones are being launched each year.

530 scholarly societies currently publish 616 full OA journals. 78% are in science-technology-medicine. (Suber, 2011).

20% of peer-reviewed literature published in 2008 is openly available on the web: 8.5% on publisher’s sites, 11.9% as full-text versions in repositories and on author/department websites. (Björk et al., 2010).

Earth sciences has highest overall OA share (33%); chemistry the lowest share (19%). (Björk et al., 2010).

89% of researchers say OA is beneficial to scholarship and 53% have published at least one OA article; but overall only 10% of papers are published in OA journals. Main reasons cited: lack of funding for publication fees (40%) and lack of high-quality OA journals in their field (30%). (Survey of 50,000 researchers in EU-sponsored “Study of Open Access Publishing” (SOAP), 2009-2011).

OA Resources

Open Access Directory - Wiki-based resource guide for all aspects of the open access movement in science and scholarship.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) - Master list of “free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals” (7000 entries as of September 2011).

SHERPA/RoMEO - Searchable database of publishers’ policies on self- archiving of journal articles on websites and in OA repositories. Includes summaries of publishers’ paid options for hydrid open access.

SHERPA/JULIET - Summaries of funding agencies’ requirements and recommendations on the deposit of research papers in OA repositores.

ROARMAP - Registry of OA requirements adopted by universities, research institutions, and funding agencies (as of August 2011, 150 universities and 50 research funders).

OpenDOAR - Global directory of academic OA repositories.

BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine) and OAISTER - Two leading search engines for academic open archive collections and OA journals.

Beall’s List of Predatory Open Access Publishers - Blog devoted to exposing publishers who “unprofessionally exploit the author-pays model of open access publishing (Gold OA) for their own profit.”

- Prepared by Shaun Hardy




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